Ivory Coast’s ex-President Laurent Gbagbo has denied charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity, as his landmark trial began at the International Criminal Court (ICC).
The charges relate to the country’s civil conflict that erupted after Mr Gbagbo lost elections in 2010.
He is the first ex-head of state to stand trial at the ICC in The Hague.
Mr Gbagbo and ex-militia leader Charles Ble Goude, 44, both deny murder, rape, attempted murder and persecution.
The trial could last three or four years.
As it began, Mr Gbagbo, 70, appeared relaxed, smiling and shaking hands with his defence team.
The BBC’s Anna Holligan, at the trial, said he steadied himself on his desk as he replied “not guilty” as the charges were read.